Myanmar, or Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Thailand, Laos, Bangladesh, China, and India are its neighbors. It has a population of approximately 54 million people, the majority of whom speak Burmese, while other languages are also spoken. Yangon (Rangoon) is the largest city, while Nay Pyi Taw is the capital. Buddhism is the predominant religion. The country is home to a diverse ethnic population, including Rohingya Muslims. In 1948, the country declared independence from the United Kingdom. From 1962 to 2011, it was ruled by the military, until a new administration began to usher in a return to civilian governance.
It all started after a landslide victory by Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD party in a general election on 1 February 2021, the military took control. It had backed the opposition's demand for a re-run of the election, alleging widespread fraud. According to the election commission, there is no evidence to back up these assertions.
The Campaign for Civil Disobedience (CDM) was created by opposition activists to help organise strikes and mass protests against the coup. Live fire, water cannons, and rubber bullets were used by the military to put them down. What began as civil disobedience has now devolved into a civil conflict throughout Myanmar. Local militias known as the People's Defence Forces (PDFs) have attacked military convoys and assassinated government leaders.
The government has retaliated violently against the PDFs, including the torture and murder of 40 citizens in the opposition stronghold of Sagaing district in July 2021.
Min Aung Hlaing, the military commander-in-chief, has assumed authority. He has long exercised enormous political authority, effectively retaining the Tatmadaw's (Malaysian military's) power when the country transitioned to democracy. For his alleged role in the military's attacks on ethnic minorities, he has faced international censure and penalties. General Hlaing has stated that the military will build a "genuine and disciplined democracy" on behalf of the people. Once the state of emergency is lifted, the military promises it will host a "free and fair" election.
At least 1,500 people are reported to have died in Myanmar's year-long anti-coup protests, with thousands more probably slain in the armed fighting, according to the UN human rights office. According to U.N. human rights spokesman Ravina Shamdasani, at least 11,787 people were wrongfully held in Myanmar during that time, with 8,792 still in captivity. Myanmar's ruling junta has contested previous rights group estimates of the death toll.
At a United Nations briefing in Geneva, Shamdasani disclosed the figures for arbitrary detentions, saying, "This is for voicing their disagreement to the military, whether in peaceful marches or even through internet activity."
"We've documented 1,500 people slain, but solely in the context of protests," she added, adding that 200 of those killed were "killed due to torture in military custody.” "This figure does not include those murdered as a result of the armed conflict. We are aware that there are thousands of them "Shamdasani stated the following.